A brief introduction about Behshahr
The name of Behshahr before the Safavi period, was Tamisheh, Namayeh, Penjehzareh, and Asyabsar. Since Shah Abbas's mother has born in BehShahr, so by traveling to Behshahr regulary, made this city as a summer house and he has changed its name to Ashraf AlBalad , means the best and most honorable cities. He built palaces and mansions in Behshahr. Rocnol -Asfar, one of the member of the Naseri period, has cited in his travelogue another example for Ashraf. He believes that when Shah Abbas has built the city in a modern form, some of the courtiers said, "Haza Ashraf Meh Farah Abad" and the same word came to the heart of the Shah.
In general, the southern part of the Caspian Sea has been favored from the political, historical and military significance of the past.
Investigations and searches carried out on the coast of the Caspian Sea in places such as "Hutu caves" and the Kamarbandi (near Behshahr), has scrolled antiquity from the region to the cave period and dating around 10,000 BC.
Besides other researches have displayed that in the ancient era of the region, there was one of the most important areas of civilization before and after Iran's history.
Research from historical texts shows that in the middle of the third century AH, Islam has been infiltrated in the shape of the Alevis.
The city of Behshahr was originally known as one of the most important villages named Namayyah, Kobeh-e-Jameh, Temizheh, Qarat-e-Taqan five millennia, and Washarr.
During the Safavi period, prosperity of this area increased. The interest of the Safavi's kings in this area made the city the second capital of the Safavid.
After the construction of the city, Shah Abbas moved several thousand Georgians to Ashraf City.
When he came to Mazandaran, preferred Ashraf to other parts of it.
Perhaps the first group of British political representatives arrived at Ashraf El Balad in the presence of Shah Abbas.
Ashraf al-Balad was damaged and repeatedly damaged as a result of the civil wars of Turkmen, Afghans and the attacks of the Zionist armies.
Nader Shah spent some time in the city when he was deploying the Battle of the War. Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar was very interested in it and he often stayed in this city, The inhabitants of this city were composed of different tribes, Among the Georgian immigrants that Shah Abbas had removed them from the Caucasus, Also, a group of Taleshi Langaran families, who came from the coast of the Caspian Sea, and a group of Persians who were one of the Iranian tribes.
Today Behshar is a beautiful and attractive city with many natural and historical places. Safi Abad Palace is located above the mountain overlooking Behshahr . This palace is one of the historical and magnificent buildings of the Safavid period, which was completely destroyed during the Qajar period due to neglect, but But in the Pahlavi era, by the order of Reza Shah, Rebuilt with the same architecture and features of the Safavid era. The beautiful city of Behshahr is one of the cities of Mazandaran province, which is limited to the north to the Gulf of Miyankaleh, east to the city of Kurdkoh , south to the slopes of Alborz and Damghan, and to the west to the cities of Sari and Neka .
Behshahr has always been a popular destination for tourists, charisma, nature and kings and locals due to its mild and temperate climate. Many palaces in this spectacular area of Mazandaran province are testimony to this claim.
One of the large ground before the history of North of Iran in Mazandaran Province Behshahr city is located 2 Km northwest of Rostamkola or 30 Km of Sari-Behshahr road .Humans who lived in the ancient caves of Mazandaran , such as Gomishan cave , Hotu cave and kamarband cave , after leaving the cave , they gradually created Gohar Tappeh , this hill is man- made . That means over the time, people living with the disappearance of previous places, they have come to higher places. In the Neolithic age the life form was as a village and has been considered in the Bronze ages and it's changed to urbanization. It was probably until the middle Bronze Age that residential space and burials were in one place. But in the late Bronze Age (4000 years ago) both the size of the city has been reduced and the cemetery has been moved out of the residential area. Between the Bronze and Iron ages about 200 years the area became uninhabited and the Iron Age, the cemetery was taken out of the residential area and they chose a place with a slope so that they don’t see the infiltration of water. The relatives of this area after the collapse of the city and move to mountainous areas the bodies of their ancestors were taken to Gohar Tappeh for burial in their home town and they buried in this area with rituals.
It belongs to the Safavi period and it's located in Behshahr , Shahid Hasheminejad Blvd , Pasdaran St , next to the water and Sewerage office , and this monument was registration number 948 as one of the national monument of Iran . The architecture of this building has two floors and now the ground floor and part of the first floor remain. Water supply system is one of the architectural features of this building. There is a spring in the middle of the ground floor building using clay covers the water is directed to the first floor pools and after the overflow it flowed as a waterfall to the ground floor spring and the pools around the building . This building in the days of prosperity decorated with colorful paintings and there were various tiles. The reason for naming it, boiling a spring from the heart of the earth on the ground floor of this historic mansion is.
Related to the early centuries of Post-Islamic historical periods and it's located in Behshahr city, Koohestan village, and this ancient monument registered on 25 Esfand 1380 with the registration number 5410 as one of the national ancient monuments of Iran. According to history, the village which now known as the Koohestan once was called Tusan,it was founded by Tus Nozar, a member of the Kianian dynasty .
Sefid Chah Cemetery
It's known as Espeh Chah, Belongs to the Timurid period and it's located in Behshahr, Raneh Sar part,Sefid Chah village, and this ancient monument registered on 17 Esfand 1381 with the registration number 7845 as one of the national ancient monument of Iran. It was a customary in the village of SefidChah that they engraved according to their job on tombstones of the dead. But after the death of the last surviving stonecutters and engravers of the Mosayeb quarter, the life of engraving on the stone is also over and the new dead of the village, are buried with today's stones.
Hotu Cave( Ghar Hotu )
The cave has a long history and important ancient monuments about early human's life have found there. This cave is located at the hillside of Alborze mountain and to the west and at the beginning of the entrance of Behshahr city and at a distance of 50 meters from its pair, and it has two entrances at two different heights and a ventilation hole in the roof. This cave and Kamarband cave by discovering the human's skeleton and about 10 thousand years old are famous over the world. In some cases, the cave is known as the gold mine of Anthropologists due to the importance of the cave and the ancient monuments discovered in it is so much. The most important of these discoveries, known as the (Hotu Man); there atomies including the skeleton of an adult male and female, along with a skeleton of a young woman there are. Pictures of these discoveries that was achieved in 1330 AD(1951) with the direction of Professor Carlton Stevens Kun, a prodessor at the university of Pennsylvania in the United Stated, the archives of the Musem of archeology and anthropology at the university of Pennsylvania are available.
The Economy of the region
These products, which include sweet and sour Pomegranate, Tangerine, Orange, Rice, Sunflower oil seeds, Rapeseed are popular in Behshahr. Also, Behshahr city is one of the centers of seed production, vegetable oil and soap in Iran. And Chitsazi Factory has a long history. Amirabad Port special economic zone is also one of the growing economic areas near Behshahr city. Behpak Factory is another huge producers of vegetable oil and Soyabeans in the Middle East, has given a special reputation to this beautiful city. It is noticeable that this factory produces some products such as Laden vegetable oil and Bahar and Sobhan Soyabeans. Also, Amirabad port of Behshahr is one of the big ports in the north of the country which connected to the railway.
The souvenirs of Behshahr city including traditional food, fruits and handicrafts of this city, can be mentioned as follows:
Traditional food of Behshahr included
Naz Khatoon, Ash Gazneh (Gazneh Ash), Ash Kadu, Ash Tursh(Tershi Ash), Ash Dogh, Tahchin, Fesenjan, Anar Tim Kheresh, Khursh Morgh Tursh, Baghala Polo, Morgh Shekampoor, Kadu Polo(Kahi Pela), Akebar Jojeh, Mahi Shekampoor, and so on…
It should be noted that Khorsht Fesenjan has a sweet taste due to the use of sweet pomegranate. (Sweet+ Sour = Malas taste)
Bread & Sweets:
Tandir Noon(Nan Mahali), Halva Gerdu(Aghoz Helva), Sohan Konjed(Peshte Zik), Brenjak(Bahardaneh), Pis Gandleh, Ghatalmeh, Komaj, Nasiri and so on …
It should be noted that ( Gatlmah) is mostly used during the Holy month of Ramadan and on the Eftar time.
Bademjan Torshi(Pickled Eggplants), sir Torshi(Pickled Garlic), Haft Bijar, Torshi Paralmasi, Naz Khatoon, Vingom Zalak, Hali Tourshi, Abghoreh, Ab Narange(Orange Juice ) and …
Cherries, Peas, Raspberried, Apple, Orange, Figs, Carrots, Spring Oranges, etc.
Spring Orange, Cherry, Pomegranate…
Sort of Fruits, Figs, Jungle Medlar, (Kenes), Wild Japonica, Wild Raspberry, Zard Kija( Kind of Edible Mushroom), Nettle and Walnuts, Gourd, Sesame, Wild Persimmon, Rice, soy, Rapeseed, Leek, Green Tomato, Tabacco,…
Wood Industry, Furniture Making, Textile, Mat Weaving, Carpet Weaving, Jajmbafi, Sock Weaving, Production of Textiles, Pottery and…